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Старый город и Вильнюсская Богоматерь (Вильнюс)


Старый город и Вильнюсская Богоматерь (Вильнюс)

 Польское название ворот — ostra brama переводится на русский как " Острые ворота ". Эти ворота, впервые упомянутые в хрониках в 1514 году, — единственные уцелевшие ворота из десяти построенных в начале xvi века. На воротах были повешены иконы — Иисуса Христа с наружной стороны и Богоматери — с внутренней. Размер икон — 2 на 1, 5 м. В xvii веке около Ворот Зари была построена раздельно стоящая деревянная часовня, а затем — каменная. У Чудотворной иконы Девы Марии Милосердной родное особое значение в духовной жизни Литвы. Стены часовни увешаны золотыми и серебряными обетными подарками верующих.

Вильнюсская Богоматерь

У православного Успенского( или, как его зовут в народе, Пречистенского) кафедрального храма e16 очень трудная история. На берегу реки Вильни еще в 1346 году была заложена православная храм. Позже собор стал приходить в упадок, и в 1511 году стараниями большого гетмана и князя литовского Константина Острожского он был перестроен по эталону собора Св. Софии в Киеве. После 1609 года храм перешел к униатам, но и они не слишком продолжительно им пользовались, и вскоре он был покинут. В итоге в 1808 году церковь передали университету как филиал библиотеки и анатомикум. Однако в 1865 году храм вернули православной церкви, он был отремонтирован и заново освящен. В настоящее время это действующий церковь Московской патриархии. По соседству с Успенским кафедральным храмом находится знаменитый костел Святой Анны e17( ; V. Onos ba? Ny? Ia), более подробно ознакомиться
можно тут. Собор был возведен возле 1500 года. Архитектор собора неизвестен. По понятию специалистов, это один из лучших в мире образцов поздней готики. За всю свою историю храм не подвергался перестройке. Существует легенда, сообразно которой Наполеон Бонапарт, пораженный грациозностью это- го костела, захотел на ладошки унести его в Париж.
 Однако это не помешало французам расположить в нем конюшни. Сразу за храмом Св. Анны располагаться костел Св. Франциска Ассизского E18 (бернардинцев)( ; V. Pranci? Kaus asy? Ie? Io ( bernardin?) Ba? Ny? Ia). Свой сегодняшний облик костел приобрел в 1577 году после ряда реконструкций. Это крупнейшее готическое здание в Вильнюсе. В советское время в нем размещался склад, в настоящее время идут восстановительные работы, в которых участвуют и монахи-францисканцы. Для путешественников организуются специальные экскурсии в заранее оговоренные часы. Вильнюсская Богоматерь Для католиков, православных и униатов особенное значение имеет икона Милосердной Пресвятой Девы, которая вначале принадлежала городу и висела на внутренней стороне Острых ворот в маленький нише. Так продолжалось до тех пор, пока в городе не возникли братья и сестры ордена босых кармелитов. Городские власти были рады дать им заботу об образе, что и произошло в 1668 году. А спустя три года их трудами была построена древесная часовня, которая закрыла образ от ненастья. В 1702 году шведские войска заняли Вильнюс, запретили поклоняться виду и даже прострелили его. После пожара в 1712 году возвели новейшую каменную часовню. Часовня построена таковым образом, чтобы верующие могли молиться перед иконой с улицы, таккак входить в часовню мирянам запрещалось. В 1844 году за содействие восставшим кармелиты были изгнаны, и с тех пор ввод в часовню стал открытым. В 1799 году по проекту Пьетро де Росси для богомольцев была построена особая галерея. Сейчас на верхнем этаже галереи установлен орган. В 2002 году сооружение часовни было вновь отреставрировано.

Чудотворная икона популярна во всем католическом мире как Остробрамская, ее копии хранятся в костелах почтивсех стран.


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